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【世界趣闻录】中国古代诗歌《关雎》

来源: 新闻中心   作者: 鲁希玥、胡荣  摄影:   编辑:鲁希玥  发布时间:2020年10月14日  点击次数:

 

 

你平时喜欢读诗吗!
喜欢呀,我觉得读诗是一件特别令人享受的事。
我也是,不过比起外国诗,我更喜欢读中国古代的诗歌。
那太好啦,我正好想和你聊一聊《关雎》这首诗呢!

关关雎鸠,在河之洲。
窈窕淑女,君子好逑
Cooing and Wooing ,by riverside are cooing.
A pair of turtledoves ,a good young man is wooing ,a fair maiden he loves.

参差荇菜,左右流之。
窈窕淑女,寤寐求之。
Water flows left and right,of cress long here,short there
The youth yearns day and night,for the good maiden fair.

求之不得,寤寐思服。
悠哉悠哉,辗转反侧。
His yearning grows so strong,he cannot fall asleep,
but tosses all night long,so deep in love, so deep!

参差荇菜,左右采之。
窈窕淑女,琴瑟友之。
Now gather left and right,the cresses sweet and tender;
O lute, play music bright
For the bride sweet and slender!

参差荇菜,左右芼之。
窈窕淑女,钟鼓乐之。
Feast friends at left and right
On cresses cooked tender.
0 bells and drums. delight
The bride so sweet and slender!

通常认为这是一首描写男女恋爱的情歌。此诗在艺术上巧妙地采用了“兴”的表现手法。首章以雎鸟相向合鸣,相依相恋,兴起淑女陪君子的联想。
It is usually regarded as a love song describing the love between a man and a woman. This poem artfully adopts the expression technique of "xing" in art. In the first chapter, ospreys sing together, fall in love with each other, and rise the imagination of a lady with a gentleman.

以下各章,又以采荇菜这一行为兴起主人公对女子疯狂地相思与追求。全诗语言优美,善于运用双声、叠韵和重叠词,增强了诗歌的音韵美和写人状物、拟声传情的生动性。
The following chapters, and rise to adopt weed this behavior characters tell woman madly in love and pursuit. The whole poem has a beautiful language and is good at using double voice, alliteration and overlapping words, which enhances the beauty of the rhyme and the vividness of writing human features and onomatopoeia.

这首诗可以被当作表现夫妇之德的典范,主要是由于有这些特点:首先,它所写的爱情,一开始就有明确的婚姻目的,最终又归结于婚姻的美满。
This poem can be regarded as a model of the virtues of husband and wife, mainly because of these characteristics: first, the love written in it has a clear purpose of marriage at the beginning, and finally comes down to the happiness of marriage.

不是青年男女之问短暂的邂逅、一时的激情。这种明确指向婚姻、表示负责任的爱情,更为社会所赞同。
Rather than a brief encounter or a temporary passion between a young man and a young woman. This kind of love, which clearly points to marriage and shows responsibility, is more approved by the society

其次,它所写的男女双方,乃是“君子”和“淑女”,表明这是一种与美德相联系的结合。“君子”是兼有地位和德行双重意义的,而“窈窕淑女”,也是兼说体貌之美和德行之善。这里“君子”与“淑女”的结合,代表了一种婚姻理想。
Second, it describes both men and women as "gentlemen" and "ladies", indicating that this is a combination of virtue. "A gentleman" has both status and virtue, and "my fair lady" has both physical beauty and virtue. Here, the combination of "gentleman" and "lady" represents an ideal marriage.

再次,是诗歌所写恋爱行为的节制性。由于《关雎》既承认男女之爱是自然而正常的感情,又要求对这种感情加以克制,使其符合于社会的美德。
Thirdly, it is the abstinence of the love behavior written in the poem. Due to "Guan Ju" admit both men and women love is natural and normal emotion, and restrain has a requirement for this kind of feeling, make it accord with the virtue of society.

后世之人往往各取所需的一端,加以引申发挥,而反抗封建礼教的非人性压迫的人们,也常打着《关雎》的权威旗帜,来伸张满足个人情感的权利。
People tend to get end of later generations, extended, and against the inhuman oppression of the feudal moral people, often under the authority of the "stretch" banner, to meet the rights of personal feelings.

许渊冲先生与《关睢》,一位是译林翘楚,一个是三百篇之冠。许渊冲先生的译文,淋漓尽致地展现了他自己一直所倡导的“三美”论。他的译作不仅保持了原诗的字间之意。而且传达了原诗的言外之情。
Mr. Xu Yuanchong and Guan Ju : one is the excellent translator and the other is the first of the book of songs . Mr. Xu's translation vividly shows the theory of "three Beauties" advocated by himself all the time. His translation not only retains the meaning of the words in the original poem. It also conveys the hidden meaning of the original poem.

许渊冲先生在翻译原诗的题目时译得十分贴切。他将“关雎”译为"Cooing and Wooing" ,准确地把握了题意,"Cooing and Wooing" 看似与"关雎"联系不大,但却暗含“关雎"之意。关雎指的是哇哇叫的水鸟,进一步推断可以得知指的是求偶鸟。
Mr. Xu Yuanchong translated the title of the original poem very closely. He correctly translated "Guan Jn" as "Cooing and Wooing, "which seems to have little to do with" guan Ju, "but implicitly implies it's meaning.Guan Ju referred to the squealing water bird, which we can further infer referred to a  bird full of desire for a mate.

诗歌开篇先言“关关雎鸠,在河之洲”,以雎鸠起兴,借河中小岛上的睢鸠鸣叫,引出所咏之词“窈窕溆女,君子好逑",表达心中强烈的感情。
Poetry begins first word "Cooing and Wooing ,by riverside are cooing  ",  borrow small river island have no opinion of doves, raises the  word "  a good young man is wooing ,a fair maiden he loves. ", to express strong feelings in my heart.

“赋比兴”与“风雅颂”合称诗经”六义”,是《诗经》的最显著的六个特点。“赋比兴"在许渊冲先生的译文中得到了很好的保留与恢复。
"Fu Bi Xing" and "Feng Ya Song" are collectively called "Six meanings", which are the most prominent six characteristics of the Book of Songs. "Fu Bi Xing" has been well preserved and restored in  Mr. Xu Yuanchong's translation.

原诗的第二节,第四节,第五节都延续比兴的手法.三次都运用了“荇菜”这一意象,三次的比喻各不相同,层层递进。
The second, fourth and fifth stanzas of the original poem all follow the pattern of comparison. the image " nymphoides " is used three times, three different metaphor, progressive transformation.

许先生忠于原诗。在翻译这三节时,他保留了“荇菜”、“左右”的意象,将之译为“resses" ."left and righ",同时他对于这三节中的比喻分别进行了不同的处理。
Mr. Xu  is loyal to the original poem. When translating the three, he the image, and translat as "resses", "left and righ". At the same time, he deals with the metaphors in these three stanzas in different ways.

更为难得的是,许先生还尽可能地保留了原诗中的几个“反复”手法。 第一,原诗中,第三节开头利用"连续反复”的手法,再次使用“求之”这个词,承接第二节末尾的“求之”。
What is more rare is that Mr. Xu  retained several "repetition" techniques in the original poem as much as possible. First, in the original poem, the word "beg for" is used again at the beginning of the third section in a way of "continuous repetition" to continue the word "beg for" at the end of the second section.

于是,许渊冲先生就巧妙利用“间隔反复”的手法,将第二节的“求之“译为"The youth yearns"。第二,对于原诗第三节中的“悠哉悠哉”,许渊冲先生译为“So deep in love, so deep!"
Therefore, Mr. Xu Yuanchong skillfully used The technique of "interval repetition" to translate "Beg" in The second section into "The youth Yearns ". Second, as for "Leisurely and carefree" in the third section of the original poem, Mr. Xu Yuanchong translated it as "So deep in love, So deep!"

翻译时,许渊冲先生十分注重选字用词。将“关关”这一拟声词译为“cooing"。“cooing”在词典中有两层含义:一是低柔的鸟叫声;二是温柔而轻声地说情话。毋庸置疑,cooing一语双关,传神地描绘出“雎鸠"(实为“君子")含情脉脉呼唤爱人的情景。
When translating, Mr. Xu Yuanchong paid great attention to the choice of words. Translate the onomatopoeia "Guan Guan" into "cooing". "Cooing" has two meanings in the dictionary. The other is to say love words softly and gently. Undoubtedly, cooing punning vividly depicted "osprey" (" the gentleman ") amorous call love.

诗中“窃窕淑女"被译作“a fair maiden"。"窃窕"指的是女子美丽娴静的样子,强调的是外貌。“fair”"一词形容女子外貌好,切合“窃窕"之意。稍通英语的人可能认为。译为“a fair lady"是理所当然的。因为想到奥黛丽.赫本所主演的片子《窈窕淑女》的英文名“my fair lady"。
"淑女" was trabslated as "A Fair Maiden". "Yao Tiao" refers to a woman's beautiful, demure appearance, emphasizing her appearance. The word fair describes a woman's good looks. People who speak a little English might think. "A fair lady" is fair.

但是,许渊冲先生不落窠臼,将“淑女”译为"maiden"。其理由是"lady"使人联想起贵族女子,这与诗歌后面几节所描述的形象不符,而且,”淑女”的本意为“贤良美好的女子”,并不一定指贵族女子。
However, Mr. Xu Yuanchong translated "淑女" as "maiden" in an unconventional way. The reason for this is that "lady" conjures up aristocratic women, which does not correspond to the image described in later verses of the poem, and that "淑女" means "virtuous and good woman" and does not necessarily refer to an aristocratic woman.

除了用词讲究之外,许先生对英语中的动词时态运把握准确。将来时态在这首诗中显然不适用。过去时态若运用于翻译这首诗,却会显得时空过于遥远,过于疏离,也就无法表现人类共同的情感诉求,即对于爱情的渴望与执着。
Besides paying attention to wording, Mr. Xu has an accurate grasp of verb tenses in English. The future tense obviously doesn't apply in this poem.  the past tense would seem too temporal to be used in translation of this poem and can not show the common human emotional appeal, that is, the desire for love and persistence.

他的通篇选择现在时态,这就拉近了与读者之间的时间距离,使读者感觉仿佛身临其境,感同身受。
In hid translated poems, the present tense is selected throughout, which shortens the time distance with the readers and makes them feel as if they are on the scene and empathizing with them.

这在译诗的第三节中体现得尤为明显:许渊冲先生先连用三个现在时的短句,真挚动人地表现了男子对爱情大胆的追求和对爱人热切的思慕,热烈奔放的感情跃然纸上
This is especially evident in the third section of the translated poem: Mr. Xu Yuanchong first used three short sentences in the present tense, which sincerely and movingly showed the man's bold pursuit of love and his fervent and unrestrained longing for his lover.

使用第三人称视角翻译《关睢》,这种做法十分明智。一方面,这与原诗的观察视角相符。
Using the third person perspective to translate Guan Ju, which was very wise. On the one hand, this is consistent with the original poem's perspective of observation.

另一方面,由于关雎是一首带有强烈感情色彩的民歌,所以读者对译诗的态度最好不体现出来,“第三人称"营造了一种旁观欣赏的氛围。
On the other hand, since Guan Ju was a folk song of strong emotion, the readers' attitude toward the translated poems had better not be reflected, and the "third person" created an atmosphere of spectator appreciation.

通过赏析可以发现,许渊冲先生的译作不仅忠实于原诗的字间之意,而且传达了原诗的言外之情。译诗中 ,许先生寥廖数笔,用简洁的短语描画意象,成功勾勒出原诗的“意境美" 。
Through appreciation and analysis, it can be found that Mr. Xu Yuanchong's translation is not only faithful to the meaning between the words of the original poem, but also conveys the feelings between the words of the original poem. In the translated poem, Mr. Xu translate with a few brushstrokes, successfully express  the "artistic conception beauty" of the original poem by using concise phrases .

 

 


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